Grower Resources

Drip Irrigation Evaluation Tool

This webpage allows you to collect pressure and flow readings from your own drip irrigation system, and enter your data into the tool.

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The Dehydration Model

This is an introduction to a model of dehydrating almonds.

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2020 Webinar Series – Food Safety and Quality

On December 8, 2020 the ABA hosted session 5 of the webinar series focusing on Food Safety and Quality.

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2020 Webinar Series – Sustainable Chemical Use

On December 1, 2020 the ABA hosted session 4 of the webinar series focusing on Sustainable Chemical Use.

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2020 Webinar Series – Integrated Pest Management

On November 19, 2020 the ABA hosted its third webinar session of the webinar series on Integrated Pest Management.

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2020 Webinar Series – Irrigation Management

On November 12, 2020 the ABA hosted its second webinar session in the webinar series on Irrigation Management.

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2020 Webinar Series – Integrated Disease Management

On November 5, 2020 the ABA hosted its first webinar of the ABA Webinar Series discussing Integrated Disease Management.

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Public Chemical Registration Information System Search

Find current labels by searching the APVMA database

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Almond Production Spreadsheet

This spreadsheet is a tool to aid in the explanation, budgeting and tracking of almond irrigation, fertiliser and foliar application.

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Honey bee BMP – guide for spray operators

This guide provides a summary of what you can do to keep bees safe when using pesticides in almond orchards.

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Honey bee BMP – guide for growers

This guide provides a summary of what growers can do in their orchard to promote bee activity while keeping bees safe.

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National Residue Survey (NRS)

​​The NRS is vital in managing the risk of chemical residues and environmental contaminants in Australian animal and plant products.

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Almond chemical permits

Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) Permits search.

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Reducing spray drift

When applying any herbicide it is important to consider weather conditions, weed growth stage and water quality. It is critical that herbicides are applied correctly and a high standard of sanitation is attained. This document will describe some weed management practices to help minimise drift and still get the required kill on weeds.

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Almond nematodes

Tolerance of almond rootstocks to root-knot nematodes.

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Potential for biocontrol in almonds

Natural enemies of almond pests in Australia, and the potential for a biocontrol program: This report evaluates the potential for developing a biocontrol strategy for controlling insect pests in almonds.

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Alternative pesticides review – AL16009

Part 1. A technical review on the potential use of entomopathogenic fungi for improved management of carpophilus beetles. Part 2. A literature search for use of neem products to control insects in almond orchards.

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Carob moth with David Madge

Dr David Madge, Senior Entomologist from the Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Victoria explains the life cycle, impact and control methods for Carob moth in Australian almonds.

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Orchard hygiene

This Fact Sheet provides the best management practices for orchard sanitation and hygiene based on seasonal activities.

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Viruses in Australian almonds

It is believed by many people that viruses are an inevitable factor of an almond orchard’s life and in almost all cases it is. But exactly to what extent are they in effect? Is everything affected? Why should we put effort into producing high health trees if they are going to just get the virus at a later stage in life anyway? This fact sheet uses information from Agriculture Victoria to portray a grower story and notes why it is important to use high health material at the early stage of life.

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Canker and trunk diseases

Fungal canker diseases have long been known to affect almond trees in California, however, they have become an increasing concern to growers in recent years as they affect to a greater extent young trees, thus resulting in significant tree losses. Canker diseases can also become prevalent as orchards get older, significantly impacting yield, the lifespan of trees, production costs and profitability of almond orchards.

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Crop nutrient removal

Historically, fertiliser programs for most horticultural crops have been monitored using leaf analysis at a particular period of the growing season. Whilst this technique has been useful in assessing nutrient status and nutrient levels, it does not either directly indicate the quantity of nutrients required to produce a crop or provide an accurate assessment of the nutrient ratios which the season’s fertiliser program should be based around. The more recent introduction of “new” intensive water and fertiliser management systems such as the CT Optimisation Trial and Hydroponic systems has made it possible to adjust fertiliser inputs quite precisely, so understanding how much nutrient is removed when the crop is harvested could be very helpful in setting input quantities and ratios.

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Timing of inputs

Soil solution monitoring beneath an Almond irrigation and nutrition trial identified key considerations for managing fertigation in high input/high yield almond production systems. This factsheet reports issues relating to the timing of nutrient applications.

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Post harvest nutrition

The idea of post harvest application of fertilisers and the issues discussed below will not be new information for most growers; however the aim will be to revisit the basics. In addition it is a good time as well to consider whether there is a place for the bud-building foliar sprays used to improve bud strength at the ABA’s Almond Optimisation Trial located at CT Farms (“CT Trial”).

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Soil acidification

The formation of acid in soil is a side effect of most forms of modern agriculture and can be particularly important in intensive systems. Many of the soils used in Australian agriculture initially had pH values suitable for growth of most plants or have residual calcium carbonate (lime) that counteracts the effects of any acidity formed. This means that low input agriculture can proceed for some time before the undesirable effects of acidification become evident. The changes in the soil are usually slow and may not be noticed until there are severe production decreases.

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Super soils

Australian horticultural industries face an ongoing requirement of increasing their productivity to remain world competitive. Productivity is a complex topic involving numerous components, but a key area is the efficient use of our natural resources leading to high yields per ML of irrigation water or kg of fertiliser at reduced costs. Uncertainties in the cost and availability of water and fertiliser are also providing further impetus to their efficient and productive use.

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Water & fertiliser tracker

This spreadsheet is a tool to aid in the explanation, budgeting and tracking of almond irrigation, fertiliser and foliar applications.

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Profile establishment

Most horticultural regions, in particular those areas containing almond orchards, have recently experienced a combination of two scenarios: 1. less rainfall than the already low, average, annual rainfall (e.g. Loxton Research Centre mean annual rainfall from 1984-2008 was 264mm compared with 172mm in 2008), and 2. a recent increase in the use of drip irrigation systems. If not managed appropriately, the combination of these two scenarios has the potential to greatly affect tree performance and yield.

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Water budgeting: crop factors vs crop coefficients

Periods of water stress are detrimental to tree production and are best avoided by closely monitoring potential tree water use for effective irrigation scheduling.

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Better almond pollination

Good pollination provides the foundation for good yield, so it is important to ensure that honeybee hives are provided in the most effective manner. Our research focused on the influence of pollination strategy on bee activity (which drives pollination) and the flower to fruit conversion ratio (which is strongly influenced by pollination).

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Pollination basics 101

As almond growers, we all know that bees are needed to pollinate our trees so that we can get a crop.

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Interactive flowering graph

Australian Almonds Flowering Synchronisation Tool

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Rhea

Rhea is an upright bearing tree that is suited to planting in traditional orchard densities. It is a paper shell with a closed shell seal to reduce kernel quality downgrades. The kernel itself has a hint of marzipan similar to Carmel and may be suitable for inclusion in the Carmel market.

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Carina

Carina is high spur bearing with a compact to medium canopy that may suit higher orchard densities.

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Vela

Vela is a highly spur bearing tree that is suited to planting in traditional or higher density orchards.

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Forecasts for profit – GRDC

Using seasonal forecast information and tools to manage risk and increase profitability in the Southern Region.

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Renewable energy production from almond waste

The almond industry is rapidly growing its output at a time where the Australian economy is becoming increasingly “carbon” constrained. This means that input prices related to energy and pumping costs are rising and consumer expectations about sustainability are changing. Agriculture is well placed though to take advantage of opportunities under the Clean Energy Future Plan in relation to renewable energy and possibly energy efficiency and carbon farming. The objectives of this project were to: • establish current energy demand and carbon footprint (from Scope 1 and 2 emissions)1 across almond industry producers, processors and packers; • assess technological options for energy production; and • conduct a preliminary economic analysis of the commercial viability of energy production. These objectives were met through a combination of site visits to farms, hullers and shellers and processors from across the industry to enable energy mapping and improved understanding of general operations, energy demand and carbon footprint analysis, review of available energy production technologies suitable to a woody waste such as hull and shell, economic analysis, review of relevant energy and climate change policies and funding programs, and scoping of future directions.

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Climate strengths and challenges – Riverina

The Riverina Climate for Almond production: Analysis of strengths and challenges.

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Climate strengths and challenges – Murraylands

The Murraylands Climate for Almond production: Analysis of strengths and challenges.

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Climate strengths and challenges – Riverland

Loxton’s climate for Almond production: Analysis of strengths and challenges.

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Climate strengths and challenges – Adelaide Plains

The North Adelaide Plains Climate for Almond production: Analysis of strengths and challenges.

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Variety characteristic – program updates

This fact sheet showcases the best performing selections from the Australian Almond Breeding program.

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Breeding for self-fertility varieties

This example illustrates the importance of self-incompatibility and self-fertility in the breeding of a tree crop.

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Flowering observation

Flowering Observations Tool

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Phenology standards for almonds

Phenology describes when particular growth stages occur, with an emphasis on seasonal or climatic changes. It provides useful information that can assist in orchard operations and to researchers. It is important that the description of the phenological stages is clear and accepted by the users of the standard. There are several phenology scales in use in Australia. This factsheet compares these different standards and includes a photo-scale of almond development.

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Assessing flowering and hull split

Phenology is the study of when particular events occur, with emphasis on the effect of seasonal or climatic changes. It provides useful information to aid in orchard operations. The value of this information is enhanced when measurements are collected in a uniform and consistent manner. This factsheet describes how to measure phenology of a particular developmental stage with specific examples of measuring flowering and hull split. A photoscale for stages of flowering and for hull-split are included.

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Dormancy breaking

The use of chemicals to artificially break dormancy is generally reliant of dosage and timing with the higher the dose and the later the treatment, the stronger the effect. However, this practice also brings about a greater risk of phytotoxicty and significant damage. Flower buds and flower parts are more sensitive than vegetative buds and species such as stonefruit are more sensitive than grapes.

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Pit hardening

The transition between fruit growth and kernel growth is critical and commonly referred to as pit hardening. By definition, pit hardening is the lignification and hardening of the endocarp (shell), the inside layer which surrounds the seed (kernel). Pit hardening begins on the inner surface of the shell cavity and at the end opposite to the stem attachment.

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Almond bud initiation and development

Bud initiation and development determine the potential productive capacity of an almond tree. Bud initiation and formation, are directly affected by seasonal conditions (especially temperature extremes and water stress), genetics, nutrition, tree structure and the presence of viruses. Since some of these influences are within the control of growers and nurserymen, it is critical that managers understand the stages of bud formation, and the relative sensitivities of each stage, to the influential factors. This fact sheet describes these influences and the management decisions that may affect their impact.

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